By Carol M. Eastman
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Additional resources for Codeswitching
She suggests that this mode of speech is perhaps better described as a third and separate code than as the alternate use of two languages. Swigart argues that models found in the codeswitching literature have been developed to analyse 'purposive' or goal-oriented codeswitching, and while many researchers have noted the Page 8 existence of 'urban codes,' their frameworks have not paid much attention to the more sociolinguistic aspects of this phenomenon. Although purposive codeswitching does exist in Dakar (as it does in Bukavu), it is limited to those domains of activity where the use of a specific language is highly sanctioned.
Authors looked at an English-medium school; a Swahili then English-medium school; and a Luo-medium school with English and Swahili as subjects in standards 1-3 with English-medium from standard 4 on plus Swahili as a subject. In all three Page 9 schools there was a preference to rely on English as much as possible. Merritt et al. are particularly concerned with teacher language choice which may '. . be seen to be accountable to national and school policy, as mitigated by the immediate cognitive concerns of the classroom lessons' (p.
Such markers have discourse pragmatic function as well when they accompany topic shifts as we saw to be the case with Lubumbashi speakers who use the French bon in otherwise Swahili contexts (Gysels, this volume). ). Teacher codeswitching occurs in order to focus or regain student's attention or to clarify material. It was also found that teacher linguistic insecurity (or failure to accommodate to a prescriptive ideal) arises when grammatical agreement is at issue in the embedded language (English) or when teachers lack control of the subject matter (again in English) due either to insufficient preparation or training.
Codeswitching by Carol M. Eastman