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To have the same solubilities (Krauskopf, 1959). Solutions are saturated with amorphous silica at 100-160 ppm at p H < 9 (Krauskopf, 1959). Experi- mentalists have not been able to precipitate quartz or another crystalline form solution below 8OoC. Harder and Flehmig (1970) formed quartz from an amorphous silica-iron precipitate in solutions containing silica concentrations below those of amorphous silica solubility at temperatures less than 8OOC. Mackenzie and Gees (1971) were able to crystallize quartz on abraded grains.

Synthesis and stability experiments at high pressure (1-8Kb) indicate that the greatest solid solution from muscovite toward celadonite is found in substituting Mg in the octahedral site and compensation by adding Si4' site. 2+ in the tetrahedral 80% of this substitution is effected at 8-10Kb pressure and 200°C. This solid solution diminishes with pressure. Thus this substitution should be minor in micas from clay mineral environments (Figure 6). If we consider the solid solution in the mica compositions between muscovite-MgFe3+ celadonite (Figure 7) we see that significant amounts of celadonite are present in solid solution at 25OoC, 2Kb pressure.

6 - . 00(Si,A1)40,0(OH)2. 00. The charge, distributed between 44 Figure 10. Natural illite compositions plotted in 3R2 - 2R coordinates. 3 - MR 3 octahedral and tetrahedral sites, is usually compensated by potassium and + sodium ions, more questionably by Ca2+ or H 0 3 (Hower and Mowatt, 1 9 6 6 ) . Two main compositional trends are evident in looking at this information. The first is the tendency to have a low lattice charge relative to mica, therefore a montmorillonite-type compositional solid solution, the second is the R 3 I V = Si substitution typical of phengite micas.

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Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems by B. Velde


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