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The time resolution is provided at the sample by the delay between the pump and the probe, so the transmitted probe is detected with a slow detector, and can be spectrally resolved if desired. T = T- To induced by the pump pulse divided by the transmission of the probe in the absence of the pump, To. The Differential Transmission Spectrum (DTS) can be obtained either by varying the wavelength of the probe laser or by spectrally analyzing the transmitted probe energy with a spectrometer if 14 1.

However, most of the pump-probe transmission, reflection or Raman experiments and most of the luminescence experiments to-date have been analyzed in the simplified limit in which coherent effects are neglected and many-body effects are considered to be independent of the time-dependent distribution functions. In this limit, the dynamical response of a photoexcited semiconductor can be calculated within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. 7, 43, 44]. Many of the physical processes that determine the dynamics of a semiconductor excited by an ultrashort laser pulse are the same as those that determine high-field transport in semiconductors.

9) and where k £0 = = a or b. 10) . 11) = Caj(t) 1a)+ Cbj(t) 1b) and the density matrix can be put in the more familiar form P= LJ Pj . C*. 12) ' where Pj is the probability of being in the state i. 1 Basic Concepts 31 2n, then the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix vanish and there is no coherence in the ensemble. On the other hand, if there is a well-defined phase relationship for differentj, the ensemble has coherence (see, for example, Ref. 2a, Chap. 7). The concepts of phase and coherence are central to coherent spectroscopy.

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Classical fields: relativistic covariance by Binney J.J.

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