By Edward M. Spiers
Chemical guns are nonetheless a potential army alternative. This ebook assesses their allure by way of interpreting how the brokers, munitions and protecting gear of chemical conflict have developed considering the fact that 1915; how technological techniques and refinements in weaponry have altered tactical assumptions; and the way those guns were hired in conflicts from the 1st global struggle to the Gulf battle. the writer argues that the weapon expertise has proved inherently dynamic, new iteration of biochemical brokers might quickly be to be had, and that fingers keep an eye on is probably not in a position to scale down those developments.
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Extra resources for Chemical Weaponry: A Continuing Challenge
The Germans, meanwhile, employed mustard as a defensive gas, particularly the Double Yellow Cross shell which was introduced in the summer of 1918. E. which dispersed the mustard gas in a fine spray, forcing it in an upwards direction away from the ground. By heavy bombardments Chemical Munitions 27 with Yellow Cross shells, the Germans tried to saturate the terrain, denying it to the enemy. E. barrage. If belts of ground in front of defensive positions were saturated with Yellow Cross liquid it might be necessary to assemble troops for the assault very far back.
Being heavier than air, they had tended to hug the ground, to seep into trenches and dug-outs, and to penetrate ordinary buildings. They had compounded the difficulty of taking cover from ordinary shell fire inasmuch as the protective hollows could easily become 'pockets' of gas. As a consequence, the task of protecting soldiers against the effects of gas, while still enabling them to perform their primary missions, became a multi-faceted problem. It required gas masks or respirators with filters to remove any airborne contaminants; a means of giving warning in time so that the masks could be donned properly; the provision of gas-free areas (collective protec- tion) for the purposes of rest and relief, as men could not wear their masks continuously; some means of decontaminating areas affected by persistent agents; bodily protection against the effects of vesicants such as mustard; and the medical treatment of gas casualties.
7 em shell. 24 By 1917 artillery had become the primary means of delivering chemical warfare agents, and all belligerents were firing gas shell on a substantial scale including, once they had overcome their production problems, the British, who began to fire their own gas shells at the opening of the battle of Arras in April1917. The Germans regained the initiative in the artillery exchanges by introducing two new gases in July 1917. They introduced a new class of irritant agent as a potential 'mask breaker' -the Blue Cross agents which were solid arsenical sternutators, originally diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and later diphenylcyanoarsine (DC).
Chemical Weaponry: A Continuing Challenge by Edward M. Spiers