By Ernst Freese (auth.), Alexander Hollaender (eds.)
As editor i need specially to thank Dr. Ernst Freese for valuable co operation in getting ready those volumes, and to specific my appreclatlOn to Drs. Kurt Hirschhorn and Marvin Legator, the opposite individuals of the editorial board. Alexander Hollaender January 1971 Preface the aim of those volumes is to inspire the improvement and ap plication of trying out and tracking strategies to ward off major human publicity to mutagenic brokers. the necessity for defense opposed to publicity to potentially mutagenic chemical substances is simply now coming to be commonly discovered. The lately issued document of the Secretary's fee on insecticides and Their attainable results on well-being (the Mrak Report-U.S. division of health and wellbeing, schooling and Welfare, December 1969) has made an incredible begin. Its Panel on Mutagenicity recommends that each one at the moment used insecticides be established for mutagenicity in different lately built and comparatively basic structures. no matter if suggestions comparable to those are literally implement depends upon convincing govt, undefined, and the general public that the matter is necessary, that the proposed assessments will be potent, and they could be carried out at a value that isn't prohibitive. Why is it vital to monitor environmental brokers for mutagenic task? to those that will learn this booklet, the answer's self-evident. The sine qua non of all that we price and all that we're is our genetic heritage.
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Extra info for Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection Volume 1
External agents can react with Molecular Mechanisms of Mutations TABLE 2. 7 Causes of Mutations Physical: Mechanical tearing apart of DNA Cutting by ionizing radiation or 32p decay Nondisjunction of chromosomes High temperature Chemical: Alteration or removal of DNA bases Incorporation of altered bases Intercalation of oligocyclic aromatic compounds Alteration of DNA backbone Enzymic: Production of chemicals affecting DNA Mistakes of the DNA replicating system Alteration of the DNA replicating system Mistakes in recombination or repair chromosomes either directly or after enzymic activation, or they can interfere with enzymes needed for chromosome duplication or segregation.
One therefore uses high doses of the agents under investigation and employs detection techniques that have been developed specifically for mammalian systems. Such tests are necessary for environmental agents because some compounds are enzymically activated to mutagens inside the cell and other compounds are inactivated. Theoretically, mammalian tissue culture systems could be developed in which mutation frequencies should be measurable, similar to microbial cultures, in reasonably short times and with statistically significant numbers.
For unknown reasons, chromosome breaks seem to occur frequently at specific (heterochromatic) sites of certain chromosomes (see Swanson, 1957). However, it is possible that this specificity results from a selection of breaks which can proceed to metaphase, whereas breaks in important functional areas may lead to immediate cell death. , virus or bacterial DNA molecules, under the electron microscope. In bacteriophages A. and T4, relatively small deletions have been detected Davis and Davidson, 1968; Bautz and Bujard, 1969).
Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection Volume 1 by Ernst Freese (auth.), Alexander Hollaender (eds.)