Download Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets by Cyril Ponnamperuma PDF

By Cyril Ponnamperuma

ISBN-10: 0125613504

ISBN-13: 9780125613507

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HUNTEN of the mean densities of the satellites, along with the hypothesis that such bodies are accreted from the condensed fraction of the solar nebula. About 60% of the mass should be a solution of NH3 in H2O, and a further 5,% should be CH4. The presence of the latter in the atmosphere fits this picture, which however suggests that there is far more methane remaining in the interior or on the surface. No H2O, and very little NH3, should be in the atmosphere at the prevailing temperatures. Photolysis of NH3 and CH4, and escape of I^, could produce N2, as well as a considerable range of other compounds, most of which should condense into aerosols or on the surface.

If so, what is the source? Second, is there a deep troposphere and a surface above 100°K, as sketched in Fig. 2, or do all the features in the infrared spectrum arise from a warm stratosphere? The second question is particularly important to those who would like to measure the atmosphere and surface directly from an entry probe. The minimum atmosphere may not be deep enough to make such a mission attractive. Acknowledgments I am indebted to D. F. Strobel for valuable discussions, and to F. C. Gillett and G.

Methane ice offers the most natural explanation of the spectral-line profiles and the polarization, but does not seem to be absolutely required, if the photochemical cloud is dense enough at low altitudes or there is a smooth, tarry surface. IV. ESCAPE AND RECYCLING For an object as small as Titan, even temperatures as low as 100° K are not low enough to inhibit rapid thermal escape of hydrogen and helium. Jeans escape has been discussed briefly by Sagan (1973) and Trafton (1972a), both of whom found large fluxes and short lifetimes for H2.

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Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets by Cyril Ponnamperuma


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