By D. L. Pyle (auth.), P. J. Fryer, D. L. Pyle, C. D. Rielly (eds.)
Industrial meals processing contains the creation of additional price meals on a wide scale; those meals are made by way of blending and processing diversified parts in a prescribed approach. The foodstuff undefined, traditionally, has now not designed its tactics in an engineering feel, i.e. through figuring out the actual and chemical ideas which govern the operation of the plant after which utilizing these ideas to enhance a method. really, tactics were 'designed' by means of procuring gear from more than a few providers after which connecting that apparatus jointly to shape a whole technique. whilst the method being run has basically been scaled up from the kitchen then this won't topic. even though, there are limits to the method. • because the turns into extra subtle, and economies of scale are exploited, then the dimensions of plant reaches a scale the place systematic layout innovations are wanted. • the diversity of approaches and items made via the foodstuff has elevated to incorporate meals that have no kitchen counterpart, reminiscent of low-fat spreads. • it is crucial to make sure the standard and defense of the product. • Plant has to be versatile and ready to deal with the necessity to make various items from a number elements. this is often particularly very important as markets evolve with time. • the normal layout method can't simply deal with multi-product and multi-stream operations. • tactics has to be energetically effective and meet glossy environmen tal standards.
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Others, such as the calculation of theoretical limits, may need the second law. Here we will confine ourselves to the first law, which is essentially a statement that energy is conserved. The second law analysis of processes is outlined in Chapter 6. The first task is to clarify what we mean by energy. 2 Energy: units and datum levels In a system with basic units of mass, length and time there are three important derived units: force, energy (or work, as these are synonymous) and power. In the SI system, where the unit of force, with the dimensions of mass times acceleration, is the newton (N), defined as lkgms-2 , energy or work has the units of joules (J) where 1J = 1 N m; power, which is the rate of doing work, is defined in watts, where 1 watt (W) = 1J S-l.
The flowsheet used in this problem is very inefficient from an energy conservation paint of view, as the energy transferred from the steam is rejected into the cooling water stream at a temperature of only 25°C, with no attempt at recovery. A more efficient scheme might be as shown in Fig. 15. Note that in practice there can never be complete recovery, as there must always be a finite driving force for heat transfer, so that the exit and inlet temperatures on the heat exchanger may approach to within typically 10°C.
This confirms the point made above about the irrelevance of the internal structure to the overall balance. 2. Balance over first separator (Le. 15) so that: S= 20 Pl = 80 3. Balance over second separator (boundary D): This is formally identical to the problem posed by the first separator, as the input S is now known. 18) In this example the topology was not complex: the calculations were straightforward, as it was possible to complete the solution by marching forward from the inlet. However, an attempt to solve the problem 'backwards', by solving around separator 2 first, would be unsuccessful: it is often found preferable for the directions of the material and information flows to coincide.
Chemical Engineering for the Food Industry by D. L. Pyle (auth.), P. J. Fryer, D. L. Pyle, C. D. Rielly (eds.)