By Patrick PhD Shrout, Katherine MPH Keyes, Katherine MPH Ornstein
A part of the recent American Pyschopathological organization sequence. Containing contributions from major students of causal considering in epidemiology and psychopathology study, this quantity is predicated on displays on the ground-breaking 2008 assembly of the yank Psychopathological organization. The authors discover the which means of causal statements which are made of statistical and experimental proof; then, they recommend novel techniques to research those statements and hence lead them to extra informative and medically rigorous. the gathering of chapters uniquely comprises either methodological contributions and targeted checks of the way causal inferences should be made whilst contemplating examine effects on developmental psychopathology, medical psychopharmacology, character problems, post-traumatic tension disease, and psychiatric genetics. In interpreting causal references, the authors learn controversies surrounding a variety of issues and their therapy.
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Additional info for Causality and Psychopathology: Finding the Determinants of Disorders and their Cures (American Psychopathological Association)
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 414–419. Efron, B. (1998). Forward to special issue on analyzing non-compliance in clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine, 17, 249–250. Everitt, B. , & Pickles, A. (2004). Statistical aspects of the design and analysis of clinical trials. London: Imperial College Press. Fleiss, J. L. (1986). The design and analysis of clinical experiments. New York: Wiley. Frangakis, C. , & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Principal stratiﬁcation in causal inference. Biometrics, 58, 21–29.
The roles of causal identiﬁcation and causal explanation in causal inference, which we build upon here, have been most fully elaborated by Shadish, Cook, and Campbell (2002), heirs to a prominent counterfactual tradition in psychology (Cook & Campbell 1979) . ) can provide a more realistic assessment of what our studies can accomplish and, perhaps, a platform for a more successful translation of basic research ﬁndings into sound public-health interventions. To make these arguments, we will (1) review the history and principles of the potential outcomes model, (2) describe the limitations of this model as the basis for interventions in the real world, and (3) propose an alternative based on an integration of the potential outcomes model with other counterfactual traditions.
Every individual is conceptualized as having a potential outcome under each exposure that is independent of the actual exposure. Potential outcomes are determined by the myriad of largely unknown genetic, in utero, childhood, adult, social, psychological, and biological causes to which the individuals have been exposed, other than the exposure under study. The effect of the exposure for each individual is the difference between the potential outcome under the two exposure conditions, exposed and not.
Causality and Psychopathology: Finding the Determinants of Disorders and their Cures (American Psychopathological Association) by Patrick PhD Shrout, Katherine MPH Keyes, Katherine MPH Ornstein