By Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli
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Extra info for Biosensors for Security and Bioterrorism Applications
Also, the need of maintaining the test mice makes it impractical outside reference laboratories and particularly in ﬁeld conditions . Cholera toxin (CT) is the major virulent factor of toxigenic strains of V. cholerae . It has a common hetero-hexameric structure consisting of a single, enzymatically active A subunit (CT-A, 27 kDa), non-covalently linked to a pentameric core of ﬁve identical receptor-binding B subunits (CT-B, 58 kDa) [31, 32]. The CT’s biological action is initiated by the binding of CT-B to the ganglioside GM1 receptor on the intestinal cell membrane followed by internalization of CT-A into the cell where it activates adenylate cyclase .
These emerging threat agents are produced by living organisms: bacteria, plants or animals and differ signiﬁcantly from replicating agents (viruses and bacteria) and from classic chemical agents. Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) (1993) speciﬁcally includes protein toxins (abrin, botulinum toxins, Clostridium perfringens toxins, ricin, cholera toxin and tetanus toxin along with other highly toxic chemicals as chemical agents . Since toxins are not volatile and with rare exceptions, do not directly affect the skin, an aggressor would have to present toxins to target populations in the form of aerosols, allowing contact with the more vulnerable inner surfaces of the lung.
This topic has been considered recently  and may have value for sample manipulation during sensor based monitoring. Such driven solute transfer between two distinct solvent phases may be asymmetric, thus transport from a PEG solution to a dextran receiving stream occurs readily, but that in the reverse direction is constrained and non-linear, Microfluidics a Potent Route to Sample Delivery … 23 showing threshold effects . In this context, the lateral transfer of protein was not seen to be pH, and therefore charge, dependent, but partition coefﬁcients seemed to be important and a developed interfacial double layer at the liquid-liquid boundary will affect cross-phase mobility.
Biosensors for Security and Bioterrorism Applications by Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli