By Victor R Preedy, Vinood B Patel, Kosha Mehta, R A Munoz-Clares, V S Melissas, T A Garrow, E E Howell, A Crego, M Curtis, P A Tatke, L Servillo, J Swierczynski, N C Danbolt, M Hiramatsu, M M Murphy, K K Kharbanda, H Zhu, H Y Chung, Kaisa Olli, Stuart Craig
Betaine is broadly dispensed in vegetation and animals and has a job as an osmolyte and as a cofactor in methylation in liver metabolism. it's been proven to guard inner organs, increase vascular probability components and improve functionality. The transforming into physique of proof exhibits that betaine is a crucial nutrient for the prevention of power ailment. This quantity surveys the present kingdom of play in those and different parts of curiosity, together with its position in one-carbon metabolism, tissue biochemistry and interactions with folate and different biomolecules. The research of betaines utilizing diversified thoughts is roofed, as is the functionality and results within the physique.
Written via knowledgeable overseas workforce, this e-book offers a desirable perception for people with an curiosity within the results of betaine on wellbeing and fitness and the vitamin. it's going to allure throughout disciplines yet in particular to dietary and nutrients scientists, wellbeing and fitness execs and researchers.
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Extra info for Betaine : chemistry, analysis, function and effects
This is much lower than the 100 to 200 mmol L−1 K+ assumed to be required for normal cytoplasmic functioning. However, if this K+ was localized almost exclusively in the cytoplasm, the concentration of K+ would have been 120 to 180 mmol L−1, well within a prefered range. Thus, GB and most of the K+ were likely localized in the cytoplasm, providing the osmotic balance with Na+ in vacuoles. In contrast, there was no apparent relationship between Na+ and GB levels in storage roots. Sodium levels in storage roots were only about 30% of the shoot Na+ levels, but GB levels were similar to the shoot.
And Baskakov, I. , 2001. The osmophobic effect: natural selection of a thermodynamic force in protein folding. Journal of Molecular Biology. 310: 955–963. , Supaibulwatana, K. , 2006. Water relation, photosynthetic ability and growth of Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica cv. KDML 105) to salt stress by application of exogenous glycinebetaine and choline. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 192: 25–36. Chen, T. H. H. , 2011. Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications.
N. , Jagendorf, A. , Takabe, T. , 2005. Genes for direct methylation of glycine provide high levels of glycinebetaine and abiotic-stress tolerance in Synechococcus and Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102: 1318–1323. , Bhuiyan, M. N. , Shikata, M. , 2007. Metabolic engineering for betaine accumulation in microbes and plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282: 34185–34193. , Tanaka, Y. , 2009. Preferential accumulation of betaine uncoupled to choline monooxygenase in young leaves of sugar beet--importance of long-distance translocation of betaine under normal and salt-stressed conditions.
Betaine : chemistry, analysis, function and effects by Victor R Preedy, Vinood B Patel, Kosha Mehta, R A Munoz-Clares, V S Melissas, T A Garrow, E E Howell, A Crego, M Curtis, P A Tatke, L Servillo, J Swierczynski, N C Danbolt, M Hiramatsu, M M Murphy, K K Kharbanda, H Zhu, H Y Chung, Kaisa Olli, Stuart Craig