By Richard G. Wax, Kim Lewis, Abigail A. Salyers, Harry Taber
Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Examines equipment utilized by micro organism to strengthen resistance to antimicrobial brokers, and describes options that may be utilized to create powerful antibiotics and methods to lessen the emergence and international unfold of refractory lines. Highlights antibiotic resistance in pathogens posing the best danger to human overall healthiness.
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Extra resources for Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials
Unambiguously ﬁnding the ancestor may be an impossible task in most cases. However, examples of identiﬁable precursors are still recognizable in the origin of class A ␤-lactamase genes. Indigenous chromosomal genes for class A ␤-lactamases are present in a series of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (24) and may have served as precursors for the lactamase genes found on mobile elements. A similar example is that of a gene encoding streptogramin-A acetyl Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.
If gene transfer occurs readily in the human intestine or elsewhere on the human body, it is possible that newly resistant pathogens could arise owing to horizontal gene transfers from bacteria ingested in food to pathogens passing through the colon (18,19,23). At present, there is little evidence that such transfer events make a signiﬁcant contribution to hospital outbreaks caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but this is not a convincing argument that such transfer events are not important, because there have been so few attempts to investigate this hypothesis.
There is evidence that strains of enterococci isolated from animals and the food supply are not the same as those isolated from animals (18). Even if multi–drug-resistant enterococci ingested in food are rapidly eliminated from the human colon, however, it is possible that they could transfer resistance genes to human strains of intestinal bacteria (19) (Fig. 1). The more drug-resistant a person’s microﬂora, the greater the risk of a later untreatable postsurgical infection. Given this proposed scenario, the question arose as to how likely such gene transfers were to occur during the few days the ingested bacteria would reside in the human colon before being eliminated.
Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials by Richard G. Wax, Kim Lewis, Abigail A. Salyers, Harry Taber