By Gene M. Heyman
Publish yr note: First released may perhaps fifteenth 2009
Pages note: PDF is 213, pagination is 200
In a e-book absolute to motivate controversy, Gene Heyman argues that traditional knowledge approximately addiction--that it's a affliction, a compulsion past unsleeping control--is wrong.
Drawing on psychiatric epidemiology, addicts' autobiographies, remedy experiences, and advances in behavioral economics, Heyman makes a strong case that habit is voluntary. He exhibits that drug use, like any offerings, is encouraged through personal tastes and targets. yet simply as there are profitable dieters, there are winning ex-addicts. actually, dependancy is the psychiatric disease with the top cost of restoration. yet what ends an addiction?
At the guts of Heyman's research is a startling view of selection and motivation that applies to all offerings, not only the alternative to take advantage of medications. The stipulations that advertise quitting a drug dependancy comprise new details, cultural values, and, in fact, the prices and advantages of extra drug use. so much people keep away from changing into drug established, no longer simply because we're particularly rational, yet simply because we detest the belief of being an addict.
Heyman's research of well-established yet often neglected study results in unforeseen insights into how we make choices--from weight problems to McMansionization--all rooted in our deep-seated tendency to eat an excessive amount of of no matter what we adore top. As wealth raises and expertise advances, the obstacle posed by means of addictive medications spreads to new items. even though, this awesome and radical ebook issues to an answer. If drug addicts normally beat dependancy, then non-addicts can discover ways to regulate their average tendency to take an excessive amount of.
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Additional info for Addiction: A Disorder of Choice
The exact words are (APA, 1994): “The essential feature of Substance Dependence is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite signiﬁcant substance-related problems. There is a pattern of repeated self-administration that usually results in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive drug-taking behavior” (p. 176). Following this passage is a list of seven observable, measurable signs related to drug use, such as tolerance, withdrawal, using more drug than initially intended or failing to stop using after vowing to do so.
In the 1960s and 1970s illicit drug use became more widely accepted than it was in earlier years. This is similar to what happened in Vietnam, albeit on a smaller scale. Thus, if social conditions inﬂuence the etiology of addiction, then the prevalence of addiction and perhaps even the likelihood that drug use leads to addiction will vary as a function of cohort. “Cohort” is a demographic term used to identify a group of people bound by a common event, typically year of birth. For instance, sociologists assign the “Baby Boomer” cohort the birth years of about 1946 to 1964, and they allot the “Generation X” cohort the years 1965 to 1982.
Thus drugs can alter neuron excitability and communication. Psychoactive drugs modify the CNS processes that subserve psychologi41 A D D I C T I O N cal phenomena. Some psychoactive drugs inﬂuence the synthesis of neurotransmitters, others mimic neurotransmitters, others inﬂuence the availability of neurotransmitters at the receptor sites, and so on. For example, heroin attaches to neurons that are involved in the mediation of pain and social stress. Cocaine promotes the functionality of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates movement and motivation.
Addiction: A Disorder of Choice by Gene M. Heyman